Policy-Making in Education: A Holistic Approach in Response to Global Changes
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Raising tuition, however, has its limits; government support is drying out. Cutting costs, on the other hand, may undermine some essential aspects of higher education. The second road is to increase learning productivity defined as the output learning outcomes measured in certain units per dollar or per time unit academic year, semester, month, week, day, or hour.
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The former can be used to compute cost efficiency, while the latter will help to define time efficiency. Time efficiency and cost efficiency of education are evidently interrelated. The most obvious source of enhancing educational productivity is integration of ICT; however, there are other ways.
Time is the most precious of commodities, especially for WALs.
Our own survey of National University students who take accelerated programs, which allow them to graduate sooner than in conventional programs, shows that time is paramount when selecting their learning program Serdyukov et al. When asked what is more important for them, the cost of the program or the time spent learning, 88 percent of surveyed WALs stated that time was more important, and they were willing to pay more for a shorter program of the same quality. So accelerated programs are often more competitive than the conventional extended ones.
Serdyukov and Serdyukova posit that time efficiency of the learning process is a decisive factor in assessing a program or a course. In their opinion, colleges and universities, which are now evaluated based upon the quality of their education, will soon be selected and valued based on the time needed for the learning to take place.
In the same way, programs that cost less will be more competitive than those that cost more. When considering time investment, instructional activities are basically concerned with either learning more in the same time i. Consideration of time investment in learning coupled with recent innovations in cognitive psychology and ET is what brought to life accelerated and intensive programs.
Various approaches and methodologies for providing faster and shorter education without compromising academic quality have been described in the literature Scott and Conrad, ; Rose and Nicholl, ; Bowling et al. They are grounded in the newest brain research in the cognitive and emotional potential of learners Lozanov, , ; Kitaigorodskaya, , innovative approaches to teaching and learning that use nontraditional organizational forms, techniques and processes Boyes et al.
Accelerated and intensive programs can significantly shorten the duration of the learning measured in class hours, days, weeks, or semesters. In some cases, they can also increase learning outcomes measured in the volume of knowledge constructed or skill sets learned in a given time. Serdyukov, A conventional semester model of college education may not suit a new generation of WALs who take school part-time and need to speed up learning to obtain employable competencies and skills.
The AL model delivers a semester program in a shorter period of time than the conventional program model but with the comparable results. Onsite classes usually meet two evening sessions per week for four-and-a-half hour each; in some cases, there are two additional Saturday morning sessions of the same duration. Thus, each course runs for eight evenings with one Saturday morning final session for graduate programs totaling Online courses also run for four weeks but instead of face-to-face classroom sessions students participate in threaded discussions one or two per week , view live videoconferencing sessions one per week , carry out weekly written assignments, develop projects, and in some courses complete mandatory field activities e.
The sequential approach when students take one course after another allows for more accumulated and integrated learning experiences. Besides, according to the student survey Serdyukov et al. Therefore, learning only one content area at a time has become one of the crucial factors of AL. The intensive approach, a superior level of AL, has been used in many countries primarily for foreign language education, probably the most time-consuming didactic endeavor.
One indicator of how efficiently a student has learned a foreign language is the number of words learned, retained, and correctly used in communication, both in oral and written speech reading and writing. According to research Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, , a person needs to know and be able to use two to three thousand words in a foreign language for basic communication. These so-called communicative skills can be assessed by the ability of the learner to accomplish a communication task in certain communicative situations.
Duration of the study course at this level in a conventional institution can reach hours. At a rate of two hours a week, the course duration may extend to or more weeks two years. When an innovative, intensive instructional methodology, such as suggestopedia Lozanov, ; Kitaigorodskaya, ; Rose and Nicholl, , is used to teach a foreign language, the learning efficiency significantly rises, and the course duration with the same outcomes can be reduced by approximately 50 percent, as compared to a conventional college course.
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For instance, an initial intensive course can take up to to hours. The course is usually taught with higher frequency and longer lessons usually four to five hours, two to three or more times a week.
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Thus, a complete course of study may be completed only in ten weeks 2. This is a case of disruptive, revolutionary innovation that produces a radical transformation in foreign language learning where learners achieve course goals and objectives in half the study hours and one-tenth of a typical course duration. This approach, which was extremely popular in Eastern Europe Bulgaria, Soviet Union in the s and s, was to a larger extent inspired by the rise of the Iron Curtain and prospective emigration to the west. Why it was not recognized and did not spread throughout US schools and colleges may be partially due to a lack of need English is spoken worldwide.
In addition, it is labor intensive and demands high-level teacher qualifications special preparation, dedication, excellent dispositions, inventiveness, and very hard work in the class. In addition, it must be taught in specially designed and equipped classrooms. Both accelerated and intensive short-term courses demand highly efficient planning, organization, and management of the instructional process. Furthermore, to ensure efficient course delivery, innovative methods and technologies are required for effective presentation, processing, skill development, and real-life applications. Many accomplishments in AL and IL methodologies, incidentally, can be used to teach other than foreign language programs.
We formulated ten major principles that create the foundation of IL: learner-centered approach;. The formula for IL is as follows: The more organized and efficient the instructional system, the more focused the student, the more effort is produced, the better the effect of learning, the faster the rate of learning, and the shorter the process duration Serdyukov and Serdyukova, This is why all accelerated and intensive courses are always short two weeks to months long. If no significant effort is applied to learning, then there is no effect, no increase in productivity, and consequently, no opportunity to shorten the duration of the course.
So, accelerated programs that speed up learning by compressing the course duration, while requiring the same number of hours for the same learning outcomes, are an evolutionary innovation. Intensive programs that provide better outcomes in a considerably shorter time are a revolutionary innovation. We can state now that when an innovation ensures significantly better outcomes and saves on cost or time by at least an order of 2 percent or more, we can call it a revolutionary innovation.
Measuring time in learning can be instrumental for increasing its productivity. Learning to manage time productively is especially acute for independent learners and online students for whom effective time management is a well-known issue. Therefore, teachers need be taught to use time effectively. In teacher preparation programs, for instance, we recommend that teachers use time estimates when planning lessons Serdyukov and Ryan, ; FEA, Thus, making learning more time and cost efficient offers a promising venue for further innovations.
US education desperately needs effective innovations of scale that can help produce high quality learning outcomes across the system and for all students. We can start by intensifying our integration of successful international learning models and creating conditions in our schools and colleges that foster and support innovators and educational entrepreneurs, or edupreneurs Tait and Faulkner, Moreover, these transformations should be varied, yet systematic, targeting different vital aspects of education.
Deep, multifaceted, and comprehensive innovations, both tangible and intangible, have the capacity to quickly generate scalable effects. We also have to bring all grades, from preschool to higher and postgraduate levels, into one cohesive system. As the price of education, especially at colleges and universities, continues to rise, cost and time efficiency of learning, effective instructional approaches, and methods and tools capable of fulfilling the primary mission of education all will become critical areas of research and inventive solutions.
develop.quickli.com/las-edades-del-hombre-en-aguilar-de-campoo.php Colleges and universities must concentrate on expanding the value of education, maximizing the productivity of learning, correlating investments with projected outcomes, and improving cost and time efficiency. Whatever technologies we devise for education, however much technology we integrate into learning, the human element, particularly the learner and teacher, remains problematic. So, while taking advantage of effective educational technologies, we must situate those modern tools within a wider context of human education in order to preserve its humanistic, developmental purpose and, thus, make more effective use of them.
Computers for schools are ready, but are we ready? Our understanding of how students learn and how teachers teach and craft their methodology in technology-based environments remains lacking. Questions to ask are whether current methods help increase learning productivity, and as a result, time and cost efficiency. All technology applications require a solid theoretical foundation based on purposeful, systemic research and sound pedagogy to increase efficiency and decrease possible side issues.
When integrating novel technologies in teaching and learning, we must first consider their potential applicability, anticipated costs and benefits, and then develop successful educational practices. In order to succeed, innovative education must become a collective matter for all society for which we must generate universal public responsibility. Otherwise, all our efforts to build an effective educational system will fail. Aaron , S. Abeyta , E. Accuosti , J. Afshar , V.
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