Photobiogeochemistry of Organic Matter: Principles and Practices in Water Environments
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An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle.
The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics.
Behaviour of organic matters in uranium ore processing.
The oxidation-reduction behaviour of organic matters in the course of oxidation roasting, acid leaching and alkali leaching, the regeneration of humic acid and the consumption of reagents are described. The mineralogical characteristics of the organic matter samples were studied. The results show that its organic matter rich in volatile carbon and with the shorter evolutionary process and lower association is easily oxidized with higher consumption of oxidant during its acid leaching; it is easily oxidized with forming humic acid during alkali leaching; and pretreating it by oxidation roasting is beneficial to the oxidation of uranium.
On the contrary, the organic matter rich in fixed carbon, and with longer evolutionary process and higher association is difficultly oxidized with lower consumption of oxidant during its acid leaching; it is difficult to regenerate humic acid for it during alkali leaching; and the uranium can be easily reduced and the leaching performance of uranium can be lowered. Molybdenum isotope fractionation during adsorption to organic matter. Organic matter is of emerging interest as a control on molybdenum Mo biogeochemistry, and information on isotope fractionation during adsorption to organic matter can improve interpretations of Mo isotope variations in natural settings.
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Molybdenum isotope fractionation was investigated during adsorption onto insolubilized humic acid IHA , a surrogate for organic matter , as a function of time 2— h and pH 2—7. For the time series experiment performed at pH 4. For the pH series experiment, Mo adsorption decreased as pH increased from 2. We also evaluated natural Mo isotope patterns in precipitation, foliage, organic horizon, surface mineral soil, and bedrock from 12 forested sites in the Oregon Coast Range. The average Mo isotope offset observed between precipitation and organic O horizon soil was 2.
Fractionation during adsorption to organic matter is similar in magnitude and direction to prior observations of Mo fractionation during adsorption to Fe- and Mn- oxyhydr oxides.
Our finding that organic matter influences Mo isotope composition has important implications for the role of organic matter as a driver of trace metal retention and isotopic fractionation. Preface; From the local organising committee; Organising committee; Conference participants; Opening address of Symposium C. Cesarsky; Session I. Decomposition of litter and soil organic matter - Can we distinguish a mechanism for soil organic matter buildup? This synthesis paper presents a model for estimating the buildup of soil organic matter in various types of coniferous forests.
The knowledge used was obtained from a well-studied forest with good litterfall data, decomposition information and validation measurements of the soil organic matter layer. By constructing a simple model for litterfall, and the information on maximum decomposition levels for litter, we could estimate the annual increase in soil organic matter and extend this to encompass stand age.
The estimated increased storage of soil organic matter as a consequence of climate change was found to be drastic. We thus found that the soil organic matter layer would grow about four times as fast as a result of the needle component only. This estimate was based on a comparison between latitudes with a difference of 17 degrees.
Seafloor ecosystem functioning: the importance of organic matter priming. Organic matter OM remineralization may be considered a key function of the benthic compartment of marine ecosystems and in this study we investigated if the input of labile organic carbon alters mineralization of indigenous sediment OM OM priming. Using 13C-enriched diatoms as labile tracer. Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils.
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In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…. Tropical soil organic matter modelling: problems and prospects. Soil organic matter plays an important role in many physical, chemical and biological processes. However, the quantitative relations between the mineral and organic components of the soil and the relations with the vegetation are poorly understood. In such situations, the use of models is an.
Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments. Koho, K. Burial of organic matter OM plays an important role in marine sediments, linking the short-term, biological carbon cycle with the long-term, geological subsurface cycle. It is well established that low-oxygen conditions promote organic carbon burial in marine sediments. However, the mechanism. Tritium in organic matter around Krsko Nuclear Power Plant.
The aim of the research was to obtain first results of tritium in the organic matter of environmental samples in the vicinity of Krsko NPP. The emphasis was on the layout of suitable sampling network of crops and fruits in nearby agricultural area. Capabilities of the methods were tested on real environmental samples and its findings were compared to modeled activities of tritium from atmospheric releases and literature based results of TFWT and OBT.
Transplanting an organization : how does culture matter. In this contribution, the author details the changing cultural factors impacting the operation and move of the Menninger Clinic from autonomous status to an affiliation with and first year of operation in the Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital Health Care System. Both functional and dysfunctional consequences are outlined, and specific examples illustrate how the organization 's leadership and staff struggled to adapt during this complicated process.
Based on the experience within the Clinic, general recommendations for managing such an acculturation are provided. Response of organic matter quality in permafrost soils to warming. Global warming is predicted to thaw large quantities of the perennially frozen organic matter stored in northern permafrost soils. Upon thaw, this organic matter will be exposed to lateral export to water bodies and to microbial decomposition, which may exacerbate climate change by releasing significant amounts of greenhouse gases. To gain an insight into these processes, we investigated how the quality of permafrost soil organic matter responded to five years of warming.
In particular, we sampled control and experimentally warmed soils in and from an experiment established in in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem in Healy, Alaska.
Compared to the control, the experimental warming did not affect the isotopic and molecular composition of soil organic matter across the depth profile. However, we did find significant changes with time. Temperature sensitivity of respiration scales with organic matter recalcitrance. Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter is a key process in determining the carbon sequestration potential of ecosystems and carbon fluxes to the atmosphere.
Since microbial decomposition is highly sensitive to short-term changes in temperature, predicting the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition is critical to predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and feedbacks to anthropogenic warming. Fundamental principles of enzyme kinetics, embodied in the carbon-quality temperature hypothesis, predict that the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition should increase with increasing biochemical recalcitrance of a substrate.
To test the generality of this principle, we measured the temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration of soil organic matter with serial short-term temperature manipulations over days for 28 North American soils. When joined with data from similar studies that represent a wide variety of contrasts, we show that the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition scales with biochemical recalcitrance.mail.openpress.alaska.edu/17747-2014-impuesto.php
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With physico-chemical protection likely an important covariate for relating plant and soil organic matter decomposition scalars, biochemically recalcitrant organic matter is highly susceptible to short-term increases in temperature, a key link in predicting the effects of warming on carbon cycling. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds. Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds e.
However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the. Biochar could help to stabilize soil organic SOM matter ,thus sequestering carbon C into the soil.
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The aim of this work was to determine an easy method i to estimate the effects of the addition of biochar and nutrients on the organic matter SOM mineralization in an artificial soil,proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD ,amended with glucose and ii to measure the amount of labile organic matter glucose that can be sorbed and thus be partially protected in the same soil,amended or not amended with biochar.
A factorial experiment was designed to check the effects of three single factors biochar,nutrients,and glucose and their interactions on whole SOM mineralization. Periodical measurements of C mineralized to carbon dioxide CO2 were carried out throughout the d incubation to allow the mineralization of both active and slow organic matter pools. The amount of sorbed glucose was calculated as the difference between the total and remaining amounts of glucose added in a soil extract. Two different models,the Freundlich and Langmuir models,were selected to assess the equilibrium isotherms of glucose sorption.
The CO2-C release strongly depended on the presence of nutrients only when no biochar was added to the soil. The mineralization of organic matter in the soil amended with both biochar and glucose was equal to the sum of the mineralization of the two C sources separately.
Furthermore,a significant amount of glucose can be sorbed on the biochar-amended soil,suggesting the involvement of physico-chemical mechanisms in labile organic matter protection. A detailed knowledge of the insoluble organic matter IOM of the meteorites is essential to estimate to what extent the interstellar organic matter was preserved during the formation of the solar system and to decipher the synthetic pathways of this matter in space.
Although predominant, the insoluble organic fraction has been much less extensively studied than soluble one due to specific analytical difficulties. The present work reports the examination of the IOM of two carbonaceous meteorites, Orgueil and Murchison through a number of various spectroscopic and microscopic methods, i. XANES for sulphur, carbon and nitrogen, solid state 13C NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance, electron nuclear double resonance and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.
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